Gambians set to vote in presidential election
At a campaign rally organized by President Adama Barrow's National People's Party (NPP) in Gambia's capital Banjul, jubilant supporters showered praises for their candidate.
"I can see that in the last five years, we have had democracy in our country. People can speak freely," Souleymane Mane, an ardent Barrow supporter, told DW.
"Adama Barrow loves people a lot. He gives chances. We want to be with Adama Barrow for life," Binta Fey, another NPP member, said.
But for Barrow's critics, the president has broken his most important promise. When Barrow came to power in 2017, he vowed to stay for three years. His decision to run for reelection has polarized the West African nation.
"This year's election is significant in many ways. So many things are at stake," Essa Njie, a political scientist at the University of The Gambia and researcher with the Center for Research and Policy Development, said.
President Barrow touts his political reforms and development record. His NPP party boasts about the contribution he made to civil liberties, as well as the improvements made to the nation's infrastructure since he took over. His campaign is confident that Gambians will grant him another term to complete his vision.
But for Njie, Gambia's December 2021 election is an opportunity to consolidate democratic gains and for the electorate to hold the government to account based on the 2016 promises.
"The promises were reforms. Institutional and legal reforms," Njie said, adding that few reforms, if any, had been made. "We are voting sadly without a new constitution, without a new electoral law. We are heading towards the 2021 election without serious security reforms in this country and without civil service reform."
Gambia has one of the lowest literacy rates in the continent
Doubts over the electoral body
When Gambians enter a voting booth, they do not mark a piece of paper with a cross. Instead, they stand in front of a row of multicolored drums, deciding which one to toss their glass marble into.
The drums are painted in different colors for voters to identify each candidate. Once the marble is cast, a small bell sounds to discourage people from smuggling in extra marbles and voting more than once.
Gambia has a simple majority system of winner takes all. If a candidate wins by even one vote, their victory is declared.
Gambia implemented the system in the 1960s to ensure that everyone had a voice in a country with a high illiteracy rate.
The voting system — unique as it may sound — was good enough to send Jammeh, who had ruled Gambia for more than two decades with an iron fist, packing.
President Adama Barrow claims to have improved Gambia's civil liberties
However, DW's correspondent in Banjul, Omar Wally, said voters are wary about the ability of the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) to conduct a credible election.
"The reason why people think they will not be able to deliver free, fair, and transparent elections is because of their previous records," Wally said, pointing to the 2016 election, which Jammeh lost.
"They announced the results, and days later, they said there were errors in the results, which led to a political impasse." Jammeh initially accepted the results but later changed his mind.
In 2017, Gambia held parliamentary elections, and the electoral commission made similar errors. Even during the voter registration, there were some errors, Wally added.
Gambia's electoral body, has, however, vowed to conduct a free, fair, and transparent election.
The main contenders
Six candidates are battling for the presidency. None of whom are women, despite 57% of Gambia's 962,157 registered voters being female. Analysts say it's a two-horse race between President Adama Barrow and his former Deputy Ousainou Darboe.
Analysts say the race is between former Vice President Ousainou Darbor (L) and President Adama Barrow
The 73-year-old opposition leader is running under the United Democratic Party (UDP). He has promised justice for those who suffered under the Jammeh regime and economic renewal for the whole country.
To his supporters, Darboe represents change, and they believe he can keep those same promises that Barrow broke.
"Our future president should focus on the education sector. Because right now at the University of Gambia, the tuition fee is very expensive, not everyone can afford it," Fatou B Sanyang, a university student, told DW.
Jammeh's shadow looms large
According to political analyst Njie, Gambia struggles with complex challenges ranging from unemployment — especially among the youth — as well as issues with healthcare, education, infrastructure, and the economy.
Ex-ruler Yahya Jammeh still enjoys massive support, particularly in his native Foni region
But another challenge that Gambia must contend with is Yahya Jammeh's political interference.
"Yahya Jammeh remains an influential figure in Gambia's politics. Remember, he ruled this country for 22 years," Njie said.
Throughout his rule, Jammeh enjoyed widespread support among a significant portion of the population, especially among his tribesmen in his home region of Foni. "That is why some people say [authorities] can not guarantee the security of this country with Jammeh still interfering in Gambian politics."
For Njie, this year's election is a decisive moment. "A moment that Gambians should be able to vote to either solve the complex challenges they face or continue to live in the situation."
Fred Muvunyi contributed to this article.
Edited by: Keith Walker