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Three Major Takeaways of NCRB Report 2022

Crimes against women rise again, as do crimes against children, and UAPA net widens.
crime against women.

Representational use only.

On 4 December, the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) released its annual report, Crime in India, which explains the crime rate, state-wise data on crimes, the conviction rate, and the rate of charge-sheeting, etc.

Here are a few charts discussing three of the most significant takeaways from the report.

In 2022, India recorded the lowest increase in crimes against women since 2017.

Crimes against women registered a 2.13% increase in 2022 over 2021. This is the lowest year-on-year increase in crimes against women, which have been increasing in pace since 2017.

In 2017, over three lakh (3,15,215) cases of crimes against women were registered. This increased to over 3.6 lakh (3,65,300) cases.

The increase in the rate of crimes against women over a six-year period is quite significant, at 15.88%. However, the increase recorded in 2018 over 2017 was 2.57%, which is marginally higher than the increase observed in 2022 over 2021.

Notably, in 2020, the year of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns, crimes against women contracted by 10.22% as compared with 2019. Thereafter, in 2021, there was a record increase of 14.87% in such crimes compared with the previous year’s low increase.

A significant portion of crimes against women include cruelty by husband and his relatives, and Kidnapping and abduction. In 2022, these two categories of crime together contributed to 89%% of the total crimes committed against women in 2022. This omnibus category grew by about 11 percentage points, from 59.16% recorded last year.


 In 2022, there was a decline of 1.3 percentage points in the chargesheeting rate for crimes against women compared with the previous year. The 2021 chargesheet rate was 77.1%, which decreased to 75.8% in 2022 the NCRB has reported.

The overall crime rate (measured as the number of crimes per one lakh population) has exhibited a slight increase of 1.9 percentage points, rising from 64.5% in 2021 to 66.4% in 2022.

If we consider the state-wise performance of states, the most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, was also on top in terms of crimes against women for six consecutive years from 2017 to 2022. Rajasthan, another geographically large state, but placed seventh in terms of population share, placed second in terms of crimes against women from 2019 to 2022. In 2017 and 2018, Rajasthan was in fifth and fourth place, respectively.

In 2022, Delhi, Rajasthan, and Haryana were among the top three states in terms of the crime rate against women.
(The above-mentioned information is only based on IPC crimes against women, and not the special and local laws.)

Most UAPA Cases in BJP-Ruled States

Since 2017, Jammu and Kashmir, Assam, Manipur, Uttar Pradesh, and Jharkhand have collectively contributed over 60% of all cases registered under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act.

In 2017, 901 cases were registered under the UAPA nationwide, with the above-mentioned states accounting for 86% of the total cases that year.

In 2019, the highest number of UAPA cases—1,226 in all—were recorded, and their scope extended to states like Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and others. Indeed, 2019 was the year when there were nationwide protests against the Citizenship Amendment Act.


In 2019, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Arunachal Pradesh also reported increasing UAPA cases. This decreased the share of the five aforementioned states in terms of cases registered under this law.

In 2019, Tamil Nadu recorded 270 cases under the UAPA, possibly the highest number for the state, as the region had not registered more than five cases under this law for the previous six years, except for the singular exception mentioned.

A closer examination of these states makes it evident that all have been governed by the BJP, either with a full majority or in coalitions. However, the high number of cases in Jharkhand can be attributed to the prevalence of Maoist extremism in the region.
Unsurprisingly, Uttar Pradesh joined this group after the BJP came to power in the state in March 2017. Prior to this, Uttar Pradesh had only registered ten cases under the UAPA in 2016.

POCSO Offences Increased 94.47% in six Years

Since 2017, NCRB data has recorded a 94.47% surge in sexual offences against children. Uttar Pradesh is on top in recording this crime category as well, with 8,136 cases out of a total of 63,414 cases recorded in 2022.


In 2017, the base year for our calculation, 32,608 incidents under POCSO were registered, which rose to 63,414 in 2022, a 94% increase.  

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic were seen in terms of POCSO cases too, as in 2020 there was a slight contraction in the number of crimes under this law.

However, 96.8% of POCSO offenders were acquainted with the victims. That said, the report focuses solely on offenders of sections 4 and 6 of the POCSO Act, which relate to the most aggravated forms of assault against a child.

The author is an independent journalist. The views are personal. 

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